Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad himself and his companions Sahabah. Human groups may take on more or less contingent functions despite their connection with Sufism; the spiritual elite is hardly to be recognized from outside. Equilibrium here makes man wise, sharp-witted and one with great insights. Another major theme adopted by Sufis was the primordial covenant 7: A concise and useful summary of this system from a living exponent of this tradition has been published by Muhammad Emin Er. Sufis believe the sharia exoteric “canon” , tariqa “order” and haqiqa “truth” are mutually interdependent.

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Retrieved April 21, from Encyclopedia. Duttonp. The intellectual integration of Sufism with the Islamic religious sciences typified many Muslim societies up to the age of European colonialism. The Kubrawiya order is a Sufi order ” tariqa ” named after atsawwuf 13th-century founder Najmuddin Kubra.

The Sufi Path of Knowledge: John the Baptist in the desert, only with sheepskins.

The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Parallel with the printing phenomenon is the rise of audio recordings of Sufi music distributed on global scale, initially for ethnomusicological audiences, but more recently for popular world music and fusion recordings.

Although Sufis aimed at a knowledge that transcended intellect, it was inevitable that philosophical categories would be used to put Sufism into cosmological and metaphysical perspective.


Oxford Islamic Studies Online. All Sufi orders trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Aliwith the notable exception of one. At major shrines like Tanta in Egypt, or Ajmer in India, hundreds of thousands of pilgrims may congregate for days at the annual festival, with many distinctive local rituals and performances.

The Meaning of Tasawwuf

Bayazid is regarded for his devout commitment to the Sunnah and his dedication to fundamental Islamic principals and practices. Muhammad taaswwuf therefore the primary role model for human beings to aspire to emulate. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Tasawuf sincerely tries to educate and morally train his followers. Persecution of Sufis and Taxawwuf has included destruction of Sufi shrines and mosques, suppression of orders, and discrimination against adherents in a number of Muslim-majority countries.

Practitioners of Sufism hold that in its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam. You are the guide of those who are passing through the Valley of Bewilderment.

Some modern scholars have used other definitions of Sufism such as “intensification of Islamic faith and practice” [20] and “process of realizing ethical and spiritual ideals”. Ironically, the best-known of his critics, the Hanbali legal scholar and controversialist Ibn Taymiyya d.

The Meaning of Tasawwuf

Socially speaking, many of the early Sufis came from lower-class artisan and craftsman origins. World Wisdom,p.


In the twentieth century, some Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion which holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology.

Eliade, Mirceaed. Part of the New Horizons in Islamic Studies series. As Through a Veil: Several sections of the Revival of Religious Sciences have been published in translation by the Islamic Texts Society.

What Is Tasawwuf

This is why in the history of Tasawwuf, we find that though there were many methods and schools of thought, these two things never changed: Excess here makes one deceptive, fraudulent and imposture. State University of New York Press, On the contrary, it is in fact closer to their superhuman source than is the religious exotericism and it participates actively, though in a wholly inward way, in the function of revelation which manifested this traditional form and continues to keep it alive.

This Article Appeared in Volume 3, Number 2. This practice of dhikr is called Dhikr-e-Qulb invocation of Allah within the heartbeats. The term Sufism was originally introduced into European languages in the 18th century by Orientalist scholars, who viewed it mainly as an intellectual doctrine and literary tradition at variance with what they saw as sterile monotheism of Islam. Archived from the original on April 17, Women and Gender in Islam.